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Haptoglobin (Hp) Test

What is a haptoglobin (HP) test?

This test measures the amount of haptoglobin in the blood. Haptoglobin is a protein made by your liver. It attaches to a certain type of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Most haemoglobin is located inside red blood cells, but small amounts circulate in the bloodstream. Haptoglobin binds to haemoglobin in the bloodstream. Together, the two proteins are known as the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex. This complex is quickly cleared from the bloodstream and removed from the body by your liver.

When red blood cells are damaged, they release more haemoglobin into the bloodstream. That means more of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex will be cleared from the body. The haptoglobin may leave the body faster than the liver can make it. This causes your haptoglobin blood levels to drop. If your haptoglobin levels are too low, it may be a sign of a disorder of the red blood cells, such as anaemia.

Other names: hemoglobin-binding protein, HPT, Hp

What is it used for?

A haptoglobin test is most often used to diagnose hemolytic anaemia. Hemolytic anaemia is a disorder that happens when your red blood cells are destroyed faster than they can be replaced. This test may also be used to see if another type of anaemia or another blood disorder is causing your symptoms.

Why do I need a haptoglobin test?

You may need this test if you have symptoms of anemia. These include:

  • Fatigue
  • Pale skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and eyes to turn yellow
  • Dark-coloured urine
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You may also need this test if you’ve had a blood transfusion. The test may be done with another test called direct anti-globulin. The results of these tests can show if you’ve had a bad reaction to the transfusion.

What happens during a haptoglobin test?

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don’t need any special preparations for a haptoglobin test.

Are there any risks to a haptoglobin test?

There is very little risk of having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruise at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

If your results show that your haptoglobin levels are lower than normal, it may mean you have one of the following conditions:

  • Hemolytic anaemia
  • Liver disease
  • Reaction to a transfusion

Your health care provider may order other blood tests to help make a diagnosis. These include:

  • Reticulocyte Count
  • Haemoglobin Test
  • Hematocrit Test
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase Test
  • Blood Smear
  • Complete Blood Count

These tests may be done at the same time or after your haptoglobin test.

If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

Is there anything else I need to know about a haptoglobin test?

High haptoglobin levels may be a sign of an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory diseases are disorders of the immune system that can cause serious health problems. But haptoglobin testing is not usually used to diagnose or monitor conditions related to high haptoglobin levels.

See also  Lipoprotein (a) Blood Test

References

  1. American Society of Hematology [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Society of Hematology; c2020. Anemia; [cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Anemia
  2. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2020. Haptoglobin; [updated 2019 Sep 23; cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/tests/haptoglobin
  3. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2020. Jaundice; [updated 2019 Oct 30; cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/jaundice
  4. Maine Health [Internet]. Portland (ME): Maine Health; c2020. Inflammatory Disease/Inflammation; [cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://mainehealth.org/services/autoimmune-diseases-rheumatology/inflammatory-diseases
  5. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Blood Tests; [cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests
  6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Hemolytic Anemia; [cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/hemolytic-anemia
  7. Shih AW, McFarlane A, Verhovsek M. Haptoglobin testing in hemolysis: measurement and interpretation. Am J Hematol [Internet]. 2014 Apr [cited 2020 Mar 4]; 89(4):443-7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24809098
  8. UF Health: University of Florida Health [Internet]. Gainesville (FL): University of Florida Health; c2020. Haptoglobin blood test: Overview; [updated 2020 Mar 4; cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://ufhealth.org/haptoglobin-blood-test
  9. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2020. Health Encyclopedia: Haptoglobin; [cited 2020 Mar 4]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=haptoglobin